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Analyzing the Application of Microcontroller in Electronic Technology

Abstract

Single-chip Microcomputer,also called microcontroller, is not a chip to complete a logical function, but a computer system integrated into a chip. It is equivalent to a micro computer. Compared with the computer, the microcontroller only lacks the I/O device. In a word, a chip becomes a computer. It is small in size, light in quality and cheap in price, and provides convenient conditions for learning, application and development. At the same time, learning how to use microcontroller is the best choice to understand the principle and structure of the computer.

The use of microcontroller has been widely used, such as intelligent instrument, real-time industrial control, communication equipment, navigation system, household appliances and so on. Once all kinds of products are used on single chip, they can play a role in upgrading products. They often use an adjective before the product name, such as intelligent type, such as intelligent washing machine, etc.


Catalog

I Introduction


II The Characteristics of Microcontroller and Its Basic Composition


III Working principle of Microcontroller


IV Application of Microcontroller in Electronic Technology

1. Application in the Field of Household Appliances

2. Application in the Field of Medical Equipment

3. Application in the Field of Industrial Control

4. Application in the Field of Instrument

V 8051 Microcontroller Basics

1. What is 8051 Microcontroller?

2. Function of Microcontroller 8051

3. 8051 Microcontroller Features

VI Types of Microcontroller and its Programming Languages

1. The Selection of the Model

2. The Choice of Programming Language

VII Design and Development of Microcontroller in Experimental Plate


VIII Book Recommendation




I Introduction

MCU (microcontrollers) is an integrated circuit chip is the use of large scale integrated circuit technology to a data processing capability of CPU, RAM, ROM, a variety of I/O port and interrupt system, timer/counter function (may also include a display drive circuit, pulse width modulation circuitanalog multiplexer the A/D converter circuit) integrated into a small and complete micro computer system composed of a piece of silicon, widely used in the field of industrial control. From the 80s of last century, the 4-bit and 8-bit singlechip developed to the present high speed MCU of 300M.

What is a Microcontroller?


II The Characteristics of Microcontroller and Its Basic Composition

Compared with other embedded system, microcontroller has a small size while the high degree of integration with high reliability and control function; low power consumption and low voltage, so it is for the manufacturing and production of portable products; have good scalability and excellent performance, its wide range of applications, including office automation equipment real time process control, all kinds of instruments and medical related equipment, automobile electronic products and computer network communication technology and so on, thus, SCM is a very strong practical embedded system. The basic composition comprises the following parts: 

1. Calculator, the ALU is the core component, the main function is to complete the binary arithmetic and logic operations, auxiliary equipment operators including TMP, B, accumulator register register ACC, Boolean processor and program state register mark PSW and so on; 

Block Diagram of a 4-bit ALU

2. The neural CPU controller the timing control logic circuit, instruction register and decoder module;

3. Memory, each memory cell in the memory is corresponding to an address, the use of 2 hexadecimal number 16; 

4. Input devices and output devices.


III Working principle of Microcontroller

It can be said that MCU in electronic technology application is more and more popular, thanks to its excellent storage function, and RAM microcontroller must occur smoothly through the A contact memory accumulator . If you want to transfer all data to the external RAM A only through the accumulator, also in the data reading process should be through A in order to achieve read accumulator. There is an obvious difference between this working mechanism and the internal RAM, that is, the internal RAM can transmit and read the data directly, but the external RAM can not. A microcontroller is a highly integrated circuit chip. The process of executing the program is the process of executing instructions one by one. The so-called instruction refers to the related operations that need to be executed by microcomputer, which is written in the form of command. Usually a basic operation corresponds to one instruction, which is determined by the instruction system of the MCU by the designer. As the microcontroller follows a particular sequence in the process of execution, so the program instructions are stored in one by one according to the order of the same, SCM in the execution of the program only when these instructions can be executed and then taken out one by one, but requires a program counter PC to the instruction address tracing during program execution give the corresponding instruction execution program address to PC, then gets the PC command will automatically increase the corresponding content, usually decided by the amount of instruction length.

How Microcontrollers Work?


IV Application of Microcontroller in Electronic Technology

The microcontroller penetrates into every field of our life, and it is almost impossible to find a trace of a microcontroller in which field. Missile navigation equipment, aircraft instrumentation control, computer network communications and data transmission, real-time control and data processing of industrial automation process, extensive use of various smart IC card, civilian-luxury-car security system, video recorder, camera control, automatic washing machine, and program-controlled toys electronic pets etc. all these cannot do without scm. Not to mention robots in the field of automatic control, intelligent instruments, medical devices, and all kinds of intelligent machinery. Therefore, the study, development and application of microcontroller will bring up a batch of computer applications and intelligent control scientists and engineers.Micro-controller is widely used in the fields of instrumentation, household appliances, medical equipment, intelligent management and process control of aerospace and special equipment, etc..

1. Application in the Field of Household Appliances

Now in the replacement of household appliances, marketing and other aspects, more and more extensive application of single-chip, such as electronic toys or advanced video games, will use microcontroller to realize its control function; and the washing machine can use the microcontroller identification the type of clothes and dirty degree, so as to automatically choose the washing strength and washing time; SCM(Single Chip Micyoco) can control type and degree of recognition in the preservation of food in the refrigerator, realize the automatic selection of refrigeration temperature and storage time; the microwave oven can also automatically determine the heating temperature and heating time through the single recognition of food species and so on, these appliances in the application of SCM technology, both the performance and the function, has made great progress with the traditional technology.

SCM(Single Chip Micyoco)

2. Application in the Field of Medical Equipment

Modern medical conditions are more and more developed. People pay more and more attention to the technology of medical sterilization. However, some small hospitals and small clinics in remote areas are still very simple, so they cannot effectively control the quality of disinfection. With the development of single-chip technology, its small volume, powerful function, flexible expansibility, convenient application has become increasingly prominent, therefore, in the medical ventilator analyzer and monitor, ultrasonic diagnostic equipment and hospital beds call system has been widely used in equipment.

3. Application in the Field of Industrial Control

In fact, the first single is from industry began to rise, since its application in industrial control field is still very wide, a variety of data acquisition system and intelligent control system using microcontroller technology, such as intelligent management, factory assembly line of intelligent elevator, alarm system and so on, are based on technology and computer chip network constitutes a two level control system.

4. Application in the Field of Instrument

As mentioned above, SCM has the characteristics of high integration, small volume, strong control function and flexibility of expansion, and has fast processing speed and high reliability, so it is widely applied in the field of intelligent instrumentation. To some extent, driven by a microcomputer control instrument technology revolution, the traditional measurement, through the MCU technology to realize the integration of digital and intelligent instrument technology and multi function, compared with the traditional electronic circuits or digital circuit, the more powerful and comprehensive more prominent.


V 8051 Microcontroller Basics

1. What is 8051 Microcontroller?

8051 is an 8-bit family of microcontroller developed by Intel in the year 1981. This is one of the most popular family of microcontroller being used all across the world.  This microcontroller was also referred as “system on a chip” because it has 128 bytes of RAM, 4Kbytes of ROM, 2 Timers, 1 Serial port, and four ports on a single chip. The CPU can work for only 8bits of data at a time because 8051 is an 8-bit processor. In case the data is larger than 8 bits then it has to be broken into parts so that the CPU can process conveniently. Most manufacturers have put 4Kbytes of ROM even though the quantity of ROM can be exceeded up to 64 K bytes.

Internal Architecture of 8051 Microcontroller

2. Function of Microcontroller 8051

(1) 8 bit data bus, 16 bit address bus CPU;

(2) Has Boolean processing ability and bit processing ability;

(3) The Harvard structure, the program memory and the data memory address space are independent, and the program is easy to be designed.

(4) The 64KB program memory of the same address and the 64KB data memory;

(5) 0-8KB program memory (8031 no, 8051 with 4KB, 8052 with 8KB, 89C55 with 20KB); Data memory in 

(6) 128 bytes (8051 with 256 bytes); 

(7) 32 bi-directional I/O lines that can be addressed by bit.

(8) Two 16 bit timing / counter (8052 with 3);

(9) A full duplex serial I/O interface;

(10) The interruption structure of more than 10. interrupt sources has two interrupt priorities.

(11)  Internal clock oscillator

3. 8051 Microcontroller Features

(1) The microprocessor (CPU) is the core.

(2) The CPU is connected to the other components through the three bus. 

(3) Bus: an information transmission line that serves multiple components


VI Types of Microcontroller and its Programming Languages

1. The Selection of the Model

At present, there are many kinds of singlechip, such as 8051, PIC, MS430, AVR and so on. Although the microcontroller model is different, the internal resources of the chip are all similar, and the use of these resources is very similar. It can be said to learn one kind, other kinds are all together. The 8051 series is the old model. Although the MCU is not the most powerful, it is the most widely used teaching resource, and the software support and hardware development are very mature. For beginners, we choose the AT89S52 model that has the online programming function of ISP.

Common Types of Microcontrollers

2. The Choice of Programming Language

As compared to MCU C language and assembly language, has the instruction system of the microcontroller does not require any knowledge, can be used directly in C programming language with operation MCU; modular programming technology is convenient, which has been programmed is very easy to transplant; MCU C language commonly used grammar less useful for writing small fast programs etc., we choose C language as a programming language.


VII Design and Development of Microcontroller in Experimental Plate

Singlechip is a very practical, very hands-on course. MCU learning method is the most effective both in theory and practice study, side drill, step by step, which can be used to understand and grasp the instruction. Therefore, before the design of the teaching project, we must first design and develop the experimental board for learning, so that every teaching project can be completed on the experimental board. The experimental board can be bought off the shelf, and it can also be designed according to the actual needs of the teaching. In the process of compiling, we designed and developed 5 modules for experiment based on teaching needs. They are single-chip module, instruction module, LED display module, seven segment digital tube module and LCD display module.

The project of "design of delay light" is described as follows: using a P1.0 foot of a microcontroller to control a light-emitting diode, and lighting up and flickering according to the 1s interval, namely the design of the delay lamp. At the same time, the learning objectives are as follows:

(1) understanding the basic structure of the C language program. 

The structure of a C Program

(2) learn the while () statement, the for statement and the use of no parameter functions. 

(3) learn to enter the simulation and debug state of Kiel software, and use the parameters of the "sec" column in the register window to calculate the related time of the program execution. 

This allows students to clarify the tasks and relevant knowledge that the teaching project requires from the beginning, that is, learning objectives are specific and clear.


VIII Book Recommendation

1. Microcontrollers and Microcomputers Principles of Software and Hardware Engineering 

Microcontrollers and Microcomputers: Principles of Software and Hardware Engineering, Second Edition, is an ideal introductory text for an embedded system or microcontroller course. While most texts discuss only one specific microcontroller, this book offers a unique approach by covering the common ground among all microcontrollers in one volume. Since the text does not focus on a particular processor, it can be used with processor-specific material--such as manufacturer's data sheets and reference manuals--or with texts, including author Fredrick M. Cady's Software and Hardware Engineering: Motorola M68HC11 or Software and Hardware Engineering: Motorola M68HC12. Now fully updated, the second edition covers the fundamental operation of standard microcontroller features, including parallel and serial I/O interfaces, interrupts, analog-to-digital conversion, and timers, focusing on the electrical interfaces as needed. It devotes one chapter to showing how a variety of devices can be used, and emphasizes C program software development, design, and debugging.

--Frederick M Cady (Author)

2. Microcontroller-Based Projects, 2nd Edition

This Book is collection of 51 microcontrollers-based projects, which appeared in Electronics For You from 2001 to 2013. It is a compilation of 51 construction projects tested at EFY Labs. This is the second edition of the Microcontroller Based Project book. Therefore, it has all the materials covered in the first edition, and also includes 25 new projects with some new microcontrollers not covered in the first edition. This book, a collection of 51 microcontroller-based projects, which appeared in Electronics For You during 2001-2012 is brought out for the benefit of our new readers.The book has been divided into five sections same as in the first edition viz : Security Systems, Domestic Applications, Industrial Applications, Measurement, Display Systems and Robotics. However, many new projects have been introduced in second edition.

--EFY Enterprises Pvt Ltd (Author)


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